Sometimes scientific results are difficult to interpret. The authors also discussed other patterns in use as related to some of the other study variables and the implications related to food security and economic vulnerability (Kaiser & Cafer, 2016). (One solution is to resort to rationalization to resolve the conflict and not give the money: it is not good to reinforce this behavior, the money might do harm if the homeless person buys alcohol or drugs with it, someone else with more money than I have will donate, my taxes go to providing services to this type of person so I have already donated, letting on that I have any money will make me vulnerable to being robbed, and other reasons.). Work . It begins with an account of how this subject has been conceptualized and then looks at practice knowledge in terms of three overlapping themes: knowledge acquisition, knowledge use and knowledge creation. Teamwork . Social work interns may place faith in the expertise shared by field instructors and course instructors. Each of these … Procedural Knowledge. Objective approaches are applied to the process of acquiring, developing, and communicating procedural knowledge. 6às102MÒ|@ÌQbàaý+çtVÂá./Ã5¦Õ]K6. Again, quoting Carl Sagan (1987): “Of course, scientists make mistakes in trying to understand the world, but there is a built-in error-correcting mechanism: The collective enterprise of creative thinking and skeptical thinking together keeps the field on track” (p. 12). Social work scientists share their resulting knowledge with colleagues and others through professional presentations, training sessions, and professional publications. Francis Bacon is credited with presenting an approach to scientific method that is a foundation for science today (Dick, 1955). What you will learn from reading this chapter is: The study of knowledge and knowing about the world around us called epistemology, and represents one of the major branches of philosophy. The specific conclusion is only as good as the general principles on which it is based—if any of the underlying premises are false, the conclusion may be incorrect, as well. Pulling a series of coins from a coin purse, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th is each a penny. A person engaged in critical thinking expresses curiosity about the topic or issue under consideration, seeks information and evidence related to the topic or issue, is open to new ideas, has a “healthy questioning attitude” about new information, and is humbly able to admit that a previously held opinion or idea was wrong when faced with new, contradictory information or evidence (DeLecce, n.d.). Sensory perception and selective attention. Human memory does not work like a video camera that can be replayed to show exactly what was originally experienced. At intake in a mental health center, Mr. R (aged 34) describes recent scary incidents where he has experienced a loss of memory for certain events and found himself in dangerous situations. Social knowledge is arbitrary and knowable only by being told or demonstrated by other people. You might recognize elements of critical thinking in the procedural and constructed ways of knowing previously described. Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory. The social work scientist develops a systematic experiment or other means of systematically collecting data to answer the research question(s) or test the research hypotheses from steps 2 and 3. Or, is it based on assumptions and personal views, representing a personal perception, judgment, or belief (opinion)? However, administration and management also require knowledge about social policy and the delivery of social services, vision for future planning, an understanding of human behavior, and commitment to social work ethics and values. Orienting theories describe and explain behavior, particularly when it comes to how problems develop. By avoiding that which we find disgusting, we may be avoiding that which could make us ill. A lot of questions surround the emotional world—the origins of emotions and what is innate versus learned, for example. We have already considered the ways that individuals across the lifespan come to know about the world through engaging their five senses. Third, knowledge comes through basic learning principles involving reinforcement and punishment of behavior, as well as observational learning of others’ behaviors. However, this conclusion was based on faulty logic:eatingcholesterol was not the cause of the elevated cholesterol levels; cholesterol was being produced by the body. If a memory is not converted into a long-term memory, it cannot be retrieved later. The discomfort of this conflicted experience is called cognitive dissonance. Identifying someone as an authority is intensely personal and individualized. The first few times, it might simply be a case of copying a role model (such as parents, siblings, peers, or television/movie/music performers). However, members of the Deaf community offer a different perspective: living within deaf culture and linguistic structures (e.g., using American Sign Language to communicate) conveys specific social and cultural implications for human development, behavior, thinking, and worldview (Jones, 2002). For example, legal counsel on different sides of a court case often engage expert witnesses who have diametrically opposed expert opinions. Under the heading of “practice makes perfect,” experience contributes to developing a certain degree of practice wisdom and expert opinion. Thinking about what we know and how we come to know it is critically important to understanding social work values, beliefs, and practices. In other words, what is today an alternative or complementary treatment approach may eventually become a standard practice based on evidence of its effectiveness and safety. Key Words: Technical-Rational Practice, Reflective Practice, Social Work Practice, and Institutional Ethnography Introduction … The pseudoscientific “evidence” used in marketing these products often included (unverifiable) expert opinions or anecdotal evidence from “satisfied” customers. The second reason people often stick to pseudoscientific beliefs despite a lack of evidence relates to a psychological phenomenon known as cognitive dissonance. Sometimes an individual makes decisions or judgments in conformity with a group’s thinking, decisions that run contrary to what that individual would have decided alone. Also, the probability of being a persistent pantry user increased with participant age. The “leader” eventually agreed, and returned safely, too. 13 Types Of Knowledge … These include compassion, objectivity, integrity and the demonstration of respect for, and consideration of others. This approach is different from that taken by Zuboff (1988), Drucker (1993), Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) and Reich (2001) who sought to provide a more generic understanding (Loo, 2017). Furthermore, the supervisor stated that dissociative disorders are rare, making it unlikely that the intern would encounter this in a first semester field placement, since most practitioners never see such a case in an entire career. Language helps describe what we know about the world, both for ourselves and to communicate with others. This would require the shift from such modernist focus towards a more critical approach to challenge the dominant discourse and to question the connection between knowledge and power enabling the enhancement of influence through social work approaches that aim to foster social transformation and change. The logic flaw in this case was a very common error: drawing a false causal conclusion from a correlational observation. It really is that simple. »‚™@a0J–À8Ý%€ú% 6¹À]ÁtÂQÌ $TÂ( â0 Reason and logic. For example, conclusions drawn from statistical analyses are always based on probability. In other words, what we know, how we come to know it, and how we think about knowing all are influenced by the personal, historical, and cultural contexts surrounding our experiences. The following are examples of knowledge work. For example, failure with an untested approach to treating a person’s opioid use disorder extends that person’s vulnerability to the harmful effects of opioid misuse—including potentially fatal overdose. In our SWK 3401 and SWK 3402 coursework you will be exposed to many of the methods that investigators apply in scientifically answering questions about social problems, diverse populations, social phenomena, and social work interventions. This does not mean always having noncritical faith in the results of science, however. Or, more likely, what if that knowledge no longer applies to the current environment? Also, emotion and interpretation are seen as important features in social work (Taylor and White, 2006). The concept of critical thinking describes approaches to knowledge and knowing that rely on disciplined, logical analysis, and knowledge that is informed by evidence. Critics of the original groupthink model proposed by Janis (1991) argue with the emphasis placed on certain aspects of group cohesion as a precursor to the observation that group decision-making can be faulty. Dissociative disorders do not occur in men, only in women (they are more common among women but do occur among men). A fallacious argument is an unsound argument characterized by faulty reasoning. The social work student must demonstrate the interpersonal skills needed to relate effectively to other students, faculty, staff, clients and other professionals. Critical thinking extends beyond simple memorization of facts and information; it involves the analysis and evaluation of information, leading to reasoned, “thought-out” judgments and conclusions. Knowledge, Skills and Values of Social work The social work profession, from its very beginning, was based on values that contributed not only to its own professional development and to helping different … Expert opinion is not, in itself, a bad thing to turn to. For example, by avoiding experiences that elicit fear we may be avoiding danger and risk of harm. We appreciate that diverse life contexts, experiences, opportunities, and biology all interact in complex ways in contributing to diverse outcomes. This analysis not only includes the results of the study, but also an assessment of the study’s limitations of the methods used for the knowledge developed and the implications of the study findings. To understand what a fallacious argument might be, we can examine the concepts of logic: a branch of philosophy dedicated to developing the principles of rational thought. Faith. Religious faith is only one aspect of how faith relates to knowledge. 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