Verbs agree with the noun class of their subjects and objects; adjectives, prepositions and demonstratives agree with the noun class of their nouns. Travel | Since Swahili, like English, has risen to a posi-tion of national integrity, I will heretofore refer to it as a Bantu language rather than a dialect. This resulted in Swahili first being written in the Arabic alphabet. Arvi Hurskainen is one of the early developers. Greek | And just as adjectives and pronouns must agree with the gender of nouns in Spanish and Italian, so in Swahili adjectives, pronouns and even verbs must agree with nouns. These visitors settled in Africa and married local people. Swahili to English Dictionary Read Text Browse Words Favorite Words Learn Words Vocabulary Games. An extension common to diminutives in many languages is approximation and resemblance (having a 'little bit' of some characteristic, like -y or -ish in English). Here are some of the equivalents between Arabic Swahili and Roman Swahili: That was the general situation, but conventions from Urdu were adopted by some authors so as to distinguish aspiration and /p/ from /b/: پھا‎ /pʰaa/ 'gazelle', پا‎ /paa/ 'roof'. Modern Swahili Grammar East African Publishers, 2001 Mohamed Abdulla Mohamed p. 4, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Development and Promotion of Extractive Industries and Mineral Value Addition", "Kiswahili gets minister's stamp to be taught in SA schools", "Dictionaries and the Standardization of Spelling in Swahili", "Zana za Uhakiki za Microsoft Office 2016 - Kiingereza", "Helsinki Corpus of Swahili 2.0 (HCS 2.0) – META-SHARE", http://www.socialstudies.org/sites/default/files/publications/se/6107/610708.html, https://www.bakita.go.tz/eng/vision_mission, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012888.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20200715041859/https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, "A Guide to Swahili – The Swahili alphabet", Blommaert, Jan: Situating language rights: English and Swahili in Tanzania revisited, Ogechi, Nathan Oyori: "On language rights in Kenya, Swahili Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Factors of Its Development and Expansion, Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Swahili_language&oldid=990077053, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing Swahili (macrolanguage)-language text, Articles containing Maore Comorian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from January 2016, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Classes 1–2 include most words for people: kin terms, professions, ethnicities, etc., including translations of most English words ending in. The Swahili language, is basically of Bantu (African) origin. After independence, Swahili was adopted as the national language of the nation. There is a number of competing theories and a fair localization is "East African coast". Portuguese | In Mombasa, it was common to use the Arabic emphatics for Cw, for example in صِصِ‎ swiswi (standard sisi) 'we' and كِطَ‎ kit̠wa (standard kichwa) 'head'. Swahili Dictionary. German | ), Phonologies of Asia and Africa 2, 841–860. The Swahili language, is basically of Bantu (African) origin. The origin of the word Swahili is its phonetic equivalent in Arabic: سَاحِل sāħil = "coast", broken plural سَوَاحِل sawāħil = "coasts", سَوَاحِلِىّ sawāħilï = "of coasts". They have chosen Swahili as their second language—after Hadzane, their tribal language—in the years after Tanzania’s independence. origin, dispersions and acculturations of people, words, ideas, concepts, or objects. Several Swahili consonants do not have equivalents in Arabic, and for them, often no special letters were created unlike, for example, Urdu script. It is easy to learn Swahili because words are pronounced as seen. Being and becoming bilingual | This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. A further, particularly well-known example is Arabic كتاب‎ kitāb(un) ("book", plural كتب‎ kutub) being borrowed as kitabu, plural vitabu, in class 7/8. Swahili is the national language of Kenya and Tanzania. However, it is generally accepted that Swahili developed as a result of trade between the coast people of East Africa and Arabs. [2] [41] In short. It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims. In Standard Swahili, human subjects and objects of whatever class trigger animacy concord in a-, wa- and m-, wa-, and non-human subjects and objects trigger a variety of gender-concord prefixes. Considered edgy and unique, Swahili names have periodically experienced spikes of popularity, such as when American Basketball star LeBron James named his daughter Zhuri, which is a spelling variation of Zuri, meaning ‘beautiful’. Maho (2009) considers these to be distinct languages: The rest of the dialects are divided by him into two groups: Maho includes the various Comorian dialects as a third group. The other classes have foundations that may at first seem similarly counterintuitive. Cultural Objects. 1993. Sign Languages | African-Americans refer to their annual cultural festival as Kwanzaa, which is derived from the Swahili word kwanza or ‘first.’. Words by Category. [47] Most are descendants of those repatriated after the fall of the Sultanate of Zanzibar. In the inner regions of Tanzania, Swahili is spoken with an accent influenced by local languages and dialects, and as a first language for most people born in the cities, whilst being spoken as a second language in rural areas. It enables you to type almost any language that uses the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, and is free. Baby names of Swahili Origin Swahili baby names are used by people who speak Swahili, in eastern Africa, especially at the Mozambique Channel coastline from northern Kenya to northern Mozambique. Learning materialseval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'omniglot_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_2',124,'0','0'])); Writing systems | One example is chura (ki-ura) "frog", which is only half terrestrial and therefore is marginal as an animal. How to submit an article. A can be pronounced as [ə] in word-final position. A little over one million people speak it as their first language. With the arrival of the Arabs in East Africa, they used Swahili as a language of trade as well as for teaching Islam to the local Bantu peoples. Human beings, for example, belong to one class: mtu ‘person’ / wat… Swahili was used to strengthen solidarity among the people and a sense of togetherness and for that Swahili remains a key identity of the Tanzanian people. In Language Death: Factual and Theoretical Explanations with Special Reference to East Africa , edited by Also find spoken pronunciation of origin in Swahili and in English language. [45] Another Swahili dialect known as Kibajuni also serves as the mother tongue of the Bajuni minority ethnic group, which lives in the tiny Bajuni Islands as well as the southern Kismayo region. A common saying, that Swahili was born in Zanzibar, grew up in Tanzania, fell sick in Kenya, died in Uganda and was buried in Congo, probably gives a lighthearted image of the twists and turns that arguably the most widely spoken language in Africa has taken since it was born out of interaction between the coastal Bantu peoples of East Africa and the Asians. Here are what each of the names mean, along with their language origin. Constructed languages (conlangs) | This might be the historical explanation for kifaru "rhinoceros", kingugwa "spotted hyena", and kiboko "hippopotamus" (perhaps originally meaning "stubby legs"). Infinitives vary between standard ku- and reduced i-. although the author places greatest emphasis on the structure of the language (phonology, morphology, derivation, inflection, complex structures, syntax, and. For example, mkono is an active body part, and mto is an active natural force, but they are also both long and thin. With the Germans controlling the major Swahili-speaking region in East Africa, they changed the alphabet system from Arabic to Latin. In Kenya, Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa (CHAKITA) was established in 1998 to research and propose means by which Kiswahili can be integrated to a national language and made compulsory in schools the same year. Esperanto | Three full noun classes are devoted to different aspects of space and time. This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 17:51. The use of Swahili spread with the growth of commerce during the colonial period in the 19th-20th centuries. Swahili is a Bantu language that has its origins in the East Coast of Africa. After beng asked by Kikuyu3 from this wiki about some details I had a short look and got stuck at the first sentence. Wa-swahili, or “shore people”, designates the inhabitants of the East African coastline, and signifies above all a culture with a common language, Kiswahili, and the same religion, Islam. The original letters are preserved in the Historical Archives of Goa, India. Language learning apps | Polomé claims that /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, and /u/ are pronounced as such only in stressed syllables. History | Travelers from Portugal, Germany, England and various Asian countries also went to East Africa. Historically, nasalization has been lost before voiceless consonants, and subsequently the voiced consonants have devoiced, though they are still written mb, nd etc. Baby names of Swahili Origin Swahili baby names are used by people who speak Swahili, in eastern Africa, especially at the Mozambique Channel coastline from northern Kenya to northern Mozambique. Part 1 of our Swahili Coast articles mainly discussed the role of Arab and Persian merchants in East African commerce.But the Indian Ocean was an integrated whole, with extensive trade among all peoples on the coasts.Objects from India appear in the archaeological record from as early as the 7th century AD, and trade colonies of Indian merchants are well-attested by the year 1000. It is also a Lingua franca of the African Continent spoken as a second language by millions of people mainly in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and East DRC. Derek Nurse, Thomas J. Hinnebusch, Gérard Philippson. Not only did that mean that one letter often stands for more than one sound, but also writers made different choices of which consonant to substitute. A HISTORY OF SWAHILI by BEVERLY E. COLEMAN Swahili language has been accused of being everything from a pidgin (Arab) and slave language to Ron Karenga's personal tool for "cultural nationalism" in the United States. It is the main town to the traditional Swahilini - the original crucible of Swahili culture. It was originally written in Arabic script. BAKITA vision are:1.To efficiently manage and coordinate the development and use of Kiswahili in Tanzania 2.To participate fully and effectively in promoting Swahili in East Africa, Africa and the entire world over[33] .Although other bodies and agencies can propose new vocabularies, BAKITA is the only organisation that can approve its usage in the Swahili language. Italian | The word Swahili itself is derived from Arabic Sawahili سواحلي which is plural for ساحل meaning [Language] of the Coast. The language was formalised in an institutional level when the Germans took over after the Berlin conference. From the central idea of tree, which is thin, tall, and spreading, comes an extension to other long or extended things or parts of things, such as mwavuli 'umbrella', moshi 'smoke', msumari 'nail'; and from activity there even come active instantiations of verbs, such as mfuo "metal forging", from -fua "to forge", or mlio "a sound", from -lia "to make a sound". Classes 5–6 have a broad semantic range of groups, expanses, and augmentatives. Spanish | It also includes some loan words from languages such as English, German, and Portuguese. Chinese | The Swahili language is a daughter language of the Pokomo language which is also known as Kingozi. Nevertheless, it is assumed that the Swahili speaking people have occupied their present territories, hugging the Indian Ocean, since well before 1000 CE. Much of Swahili's Bantu vocabulary has cognates in the Pokomo, Taita and Mijikenda languages[16] and, to a lesser extent, other East African Bantu languages. It originated on the East African coast due to a rich and diverse history of trading and cultural exchange between Arabic nations, coastal Africans, and Europeans. Reviews of language courses and books | Twelve Bantu languages are spoken by more than five million people, including Rundi, Rwanda, Shona, Xhosa, and Zulu. E is also commonly pronounced as mid-position after w. Polomé claims that /ɑ/ is pronounced as such only after w and is pronounced as [a] in other situations, especially after /j/ (y). Other topics | Here are some words. Language acquisition | It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims. Arab sailors and traders have established links and ties with East Africa for centuries, their language strongly merged with the local language to produce a creole derivative. Swahili Lessons. One would assume that since Swahili had its origins in Kenya, this country would have a large community of native Swahili speakers. Many Bantu languages have much fewer borrowings from Arabic. In unstressed syllables, as well as before a prenasalized consonant, they are pronounced as /e/, /ɪ/, /o/, and /ʊ/. In non-native Swahili, concord reflects only animacy: human subjects and objects trigger a-, wa- and m-, wa- in verbal concord, while non-human subjects and objects of whatever class trigger i-, zi-. Things with a trajectory, such as mpaka 'border' and mwendo 'journey', are classified with long thin things, as in many other languages with noun classes. ‘Language death and the origin of strata: two case studies of Swahili dialects’. After the first World war, Britain took over German East Africa, where they found Swahili rooted in most areas, not just the coastal regions. Many Swahili speakers like to refer to themselves in terms of where they come from. Indonesian | Omniglot is how I make my living. As the Arab presence grew, more and more natives were converted to Islam and were taught using the Swahili language. Swahili Lessons. Lamu is an ancient Swahili city-state in the Indian Ocean off the north coast of Kenya. Swahili, choosing Swahili as its official language and creating the Kwanzaa celebration.7 The term Kwanzaa is derived from the Swahili word ku-anza, meaning “to begin” or “first,” and the holiday was intended to celebrate the matunda ya kwanza, “first fruits” in Swahili; thus, according to Karenga, /e/ and /i/, and /o/ and /u/ were often conflated, but in some spellings, /e/ was distinguished from /i/ by rotating the kasra 90° and /o/ was distinguished from /u/ by writing the damma backwards. Ultimately it came to be applied to the people and the language. The Swahili language, is basically of Bantu (African) origin. This included publishing pamphlets and radio broadcasts to rally the people to fight for independence. Swahili History. The language used to be written in the Arabic script. [45][46], In Oman, there are an estimated 22,000 people who speak Swahili. Language and culture | Most of the Bantu Swahili vocabulary is derived primarily from the Pokomo, Taita and Mijikenda languages and secondarily from other East African Bantu languages. Arabic مدرسة madrasa school, even though it is singular in Arabic (with plural مدارس‎ madāris), was reinterpreted as a class 6 plural madarasa, receiving the singular form darasa. Learning vocabulary | Swahili is said to be the easiest African language for an English speaker to learn. If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or by contributing in other ways. Swahili is now written in the Latin alphabet. Swedish | One would assume that since Swahili had its origins in Kenya, this country would have a large community of native Swahili speakers. 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