endobj 128 0 obj /K 18 Have you ever stopped to consider all of the little pieces that make up the culture in which you live? /Annots [305 0 R 306 0 R] /P 9 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] >> >> >> >> /P 9 0 R /Contents [275 0 R 276 0 R 277 0 R 278 0 R 279 0 R 280 0 R 281 0 R 282 0 R] 255 313 0 R] /Contents 332 0 R << endobj >> << /Pages 3 0 R /CS1 [/ICCBased 284 0 R] /K 3 /K 3 >> /K 15 /S /P /CS0 [/ICCBased 283 0 R] endobj 209 0 obj /Pg 18 0 R 255 313 0 R] 7 [83 0 R 235 0 R null 236 0 R null 237 0 R null 79 0 R 80 0 R 81 0 R 34 0 obj << >> /CS0 [/ICCBased 283 0 R] /S /P >> /Pg 14 0 R /P 9 0 R /Pg 25 0 R >> endobj /Pg 16 0 R >> endobj endobj /K 2 >> << /S /P 255 313 0 R] /Rotate 0 >> /S /P << /Pg 26 0 R 245 0 R null 246 0 R null 104 0 R 105 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 111 0 R /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R /S /P /Annots [308 0 R 309 0 R] /Pg 25 0 R /S /P 197 0 obj << endobj 178 0 obj << /K 4 << /TT3 288 0 R >> 53 0 obj /CS0 [/ICCBased 283 0 R] 40 0 obj /S /P /Pg 15 0 R /K 8 /P 9 0 R endobj /P 9 0 R 18 0 obj 241 0 obj /S /P /K 2 /CropBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] /Pg 27 0 R Table 1 outlines four major paradigms currently in use within medical education research and describes the assumptions about ontology (the nature of reality), epistemology (the nature of knowledge), methodology (the nature of research) and the related research methods for each of these perspectives. /K 3 84 0 obj 8 0 obj /Pg 27 0 R /K 19 << ; The qualitative researcher is the primary instrument for data collection and analysis. 79 0 obj >> endobj Findings indicate that application of research paradigms in information research is beneficial. 148 0 obj endobj >> /Font << /CS1 [/ICCBased 284 0 R] /P 9 0 R endobj /S /P /Pg 26 0 R /Type /Page << 186 0 obj << /P 53 0 R endobj endobj >> The CR abductive mode of reasoning emphasises the role of uncertainty in complex process behaviours and can facilitate enrichment and refutation of OSCM theories. /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R 109 0 R 110 0 R 111 0 R 112 0 R 113 0 R 114 0 R 115 0 R 116 0 R 117 0 R 118 0 R /Pg 13 0 R /K 18 Quantitative research paradigms are based on the philosophy that every phenomenon in the world can only be explained by positivist paradigm. 233 0 obj /Pg 26 0 R endobj endobj This paper, Purpose /K 6 �+Sl�V����˗���Gޗ"���%{O���ȇ�,Ej籬s�/�rF �}S��t���6�Z����;[�� /P 9 0 R 66 0 obj /K [1 359 0 R] /TT3 288 0 R /K 6 /Pg 21 0 R /K 22 /CS1 [/ICCBased 284 0 R] << << /P 9 0 R /S /P >> /X7 250 0 R endobj © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. 155 0 obj /XObject << >> >> 153 0 obj /P 9 0 R /K 19 /S /P << /CS0 [/ICCBased 283 0 R] >> /K 1 >> << /Pg 25 0 R /S /P /K 17 >> /Font << /Pg 27 0 R /S /P /Pg 17 0 R /TT3 292 0 R /K 8 /Pg 21 0 R << /Pg 23 0 R /Type /Page << endobj 222 0 obj 266 0 R 267 0 R 268 0 R 269 0 R] /P 9 0 R << /P 9 0 R /BM /Normal /StructParents 9 92 0 obj /CS0 [/ICCBased 283 0 R] << 218 0 obj /Kids [12 0 R 13 0 R 14 0 R 15 0 R 16 0 R 17 0 R] >> /ExtGState << /K 11 >> << /Pg 26 0 R /Pg 16 0 R >> 196 0 obj 47 0 obj endobj >> /Contents 310 0 R /TT1 286 0 R /S /P >> – The current state of theory-building in the field of operations and supply chain management (OSCM) is in a strong need of rigorous, empirically based theories that enhance understanding of the causal relationships between the structural elements and properties of the business processes. /S /P << /K 22 << /Pg 18 0 R /K 9 165 0 obj << endobj /S /P /Annots [330 0 R 331 0 R] /P 9 0 R >> >> 29 0 obj /S /P endobj 166 0 obj >> /S /P /Footnote /Note /P 9 0 R 192 0 obj endobj << 227 0 obj /Pg 25 0 R application/pdf 141 0 obj << Available on-line at [INSERT WEB PAGE ADDRESS HERE] Last accessed _[insert date here] Introduction: Divisions, Issues, and Debates endobj We are almost tempted to see something in the old idealistic view that the solution or clarification of one question involves the solution or clarification of all. >> /K 3 /Parent 7 0 R /S /P endobj /Type /Page >> << /S /P /P 9 0 R These ideas, concepts, and beliefs that you and others share about religion, nationality, and other pieces of culture are probably a big part of your individual and collective identi… /K 9 /K 5 /Pg 28 0 R /P 9 0 R endobj /K 0 /K 4 >> /S /Figure /S /Figure /K 13 endobj /CS1 [/ICCBased 284 0 R] 77 0 obj >> The concepts and techniques that have been developed within philosophy were useful for science too for a better understanding and reasoning. /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R << endobj << /TT4 292 0 R 129 0 R 130 0 R 131 0 R 132 0 R 133 0 R 134 0 R 135 0 R 136 0 R 137 0 R 138 0 R << endobj /K 13 152 0 R 153 0 R 154 0 R] >> /S /P endobj /Font << << << >> 230 0 obj /S /P << /S /P 72 0 obj 75 0 obj /Pg 26 0 R /P 9 0 R /StructParents 5 /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] /S /P /S /P /Resources << It discusses alternative philosophical worldviews and the potential implications they might have on the prevailing modeling and simulation validation frameworks. >> /Pg 13 0 R /Parent 8 0 R /P 9 0 R << >> 2013-03-06T14:27:13+08:00 >> /Pg 17 0 R >> /Contents 291 0 R /S /P endobj endobj /Pg 14 0 R /K 0 /S /Figure << endobj /Im1 322 0 R /S /P /CS1 [/ICCBased 284 0 R] endobj 3 0 obj << /S /P /P 9 0 R << /Pg 15 0 R endobj /K 2 /K 20 /S /P /Length 3862 95 0 obj endobj /TT0 285 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] endobj >> << /P 9 0 R >> 85 0 obj /Parent 8 0 R >> /S /P endobj 4 [55 0 R 56 0 R 57 0 R 58 0 R 59 0 R 60 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 64 0 R 62 0 R << 68 0 obj 9 0 obj >> << Rizo, F .M. 7 0 obj /K 2 It identifies potential lines of inquiry and philosophical questions within the affected fields of study. subjective understanding of an area/concept that he or she is exploring. /Font << /P 9 0 R /S /P /StructParents 8 233 312 0 R] /K [13 356 0 R] /S /P /S /P null 241 0 R null] examines the history of the development of modeling and simulation validation practice. /K [14 355 0 R] endobj >> << /CropBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] /S /P /P 53 0 R << /TT2 287 0 R << >> /CropBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. << /K 11 /TT3 320 0 R /TT2 287 0 R /K 7 << 83 0 obj << /Pg 14 0 R /S /P /K 10 /Font << >> >> /S /P /P 4 0 R << 147 0 obj >> /S /P 200 0 obj << /Pg 25 0 R /K [9 219 0 R 220 0 R 221 0 R 222 0 R 223 0 R] >> Over the years, as different disciplines started evolving and developed as independent disciplines, the scope of philosophy became smaller and it remained as a separate discipline focusing on all abstract, non-experimental and intellectualendeavors of human beings. /P 9 0 R << << endobj 106 0 obj /K 10 /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] /Resources << x��yp��}�h i�f&i2�2S�4d�IҤM�I�v��1M�6�N2iC�M�dhJ��Ʒ�|��`cc|b�ԧ$�>�u�CƦHZ�m�p��:˫߻Z��~�Ϯ���}w�w?�~��_�R Ѕ7����������f���������R�:f���z����\i�t�*\�n��]߸�Kw�7�Q޺63�p�:r�d�����k�-�U����t���!�z��1�l�k�k��͍h�mlm=�N���.l��6�k��j���ce�p��p�� ? /StructParents 3 2013-03-06T14:27:13+08:00 23 0 obj /Pg 26 0 R /Pg 22 0 R /Type /Page �c(6�5)f;��j�mki�ұE}��M?Kx��[k��}f�J�'� ��1hV޳�.6��6���"�X�:���7Q��D��9��\���cDTik��3��-�#�Q��7�o�[�G�!�Ў[G�%�$py��J;��n�}��j�-�#�Q���~��!�U�Џ. /Pg 13 0 R >> /Type /XObject >> /S /P /S /P /TT4 288 0 R 189 0 R 190 0 R 191 0 R 192 0 R 193 0 R 194 0 R 195 0 R 196 0 R 197 0 R 198 0 R /K 9 endobj >> endobj << /Pg 27 0 R /K [0 229 0 R 230 0 R 231 0 R] >> /Annots [333 0 R 334 0 R] Medical Education 2010: 44 : 358–366 Context The growing popularity of less familiar methodologies in medical education research, and the use of related data collection methods, has made it timely to revisit some basic assumptions regarding knowledge and evidence.. Methods This paper outlines four major research paradigms and examines the methodological questions that underpin … /Pg 28 0 R /Rotate 0 /Pg 13 0 R endobj /Pg 26 0 R endobj >> >> /K 12 Normative and interpretive approach to resear. /CS2 [/Indexed [/ICCBased 284 0 R] /K 1 /S /P 163 0 obj endobj << /P 109 0 R endobj endobj /Resources << /S /P /CropBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] /Pg 19 0 R /P 87 0 R << involvement with their subject and a rejection of the ways of natural scientist. /P 9 0 R /S /P /Pg 26 0 R Introduction << All researchers work within the framework or paradigms of underpinning philosophical assumptions about the nature of knowledge (epistemology), nature of reality (ontology) and the philosophy of science even though they will not be necessarily be aware of them and might not even claim to hold them. 104 0 obj >> /ca 1 /P 9 0 R /K 3 /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] /K 3 << >> /Alt 101 0 obj /Pg 21 0 R /Parent 6 0 R << /P 9 0 R /K 20 /Pg 25 0 R /K 11 /Pg 26 0 R /P 9 0 R >> /Parent 3 0 R /Pg 23 0 R /K 9 endobj Creating connections. endobj /Pg 13 0 R /Pg 18 0 R /Annots [302 0 R 303 0 R] /TT2 287 0 R endobj /P 9 0 R /S /P /Pg 27 0 R << /S /P The missing link in modeling and simulation validation. /S /P /Pg 25 0 R /K 4 /TT1 286 0 R /Pg 19 0 R However, in fact, there could be a "philosophy" of everything taught or studied. << 206 0 obj /Pg 15 0 R /StructParents 6 /K 1 /Rotate 0 /StructParents 7 /Resources << << /P 9 0 R /Type /Page << >> 212 0 obj /G10 248 0 R << /PageLayout /OneColumn << 180 0 obj /K 8 /S /P >> /CA 1 /Pg 23 0 R 80 0 obj >> /Type /StructTreeRoot << /P 9 0 R /TT4 292 0 R philosopher Socrates By : Mr. Nagendra Bahadur Amatya Institute of engineering, Pulchowk campus, Nepal E-mail: nbamatya@ioe.edu.np >> /P 9 0 R >> >> /GS0 314 0 R /Pg 28 0 R /CS0 [/ICCBased 283 0 R] >> endobj endobj /TT4 292 0 R /P 9 0 R /K 1 /K 19 >> /TT3 288 0 R /K 7 214 0 obj << /Pg 13 0 R /Resources << /Pg 27 0 R /K 2 /S /P endobj /S /P endobj /K 6 /Annots [336 0 R 337 0 R] << >> << /P 9 0 R /K 10 >> /K 23 102 0 obj /Pg 14 0 R /P 9 0 R endobj /Font << 69 0 obj endobj /Pg 20 0 R /K 3 /Pg 25 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0] >> << Naturalistic, anti positivist or post positivist paradigm of research. /P 9 0 R endobj endobj the theory of swift, even flow. /K 16 /K 9 71 0 obj << /K 7 When knowledge is derived for a policy level, it should be of more general in nature and apply to. >> >> /P 9 0 R /Parent 6 0 R /S /P endobj /Superscript /Span 13 0 obj /S /P endobj >> /K 14 /S /P 231 0 obj /S /P /StructParents 17 /Pg 14 0 R /P 9 0 R endobj endobj endobj Let’s look at those alternatives. >> /Group 311 0 R Paradigms are represented as shared beliefs among members of a specialty area in terms of meaningfulness of research questions and appropriateness of methodology (Morgan, 2007). >> Both are addressed, but this book is distinguished from others in that the /S /P Positivism is less successful in educational scenario because its application to the study of human. endobj /K 7 particularly suitable philosophical position (not to the exclusion of others) to review the mechanisms of OSCM knowledge generation and to provide philosophical grounding and methodological guidance for both OSCM theory building and testing. /Pg 26 0 R /P 76 0 R endobj /ca .2 << /S /P /K 16 /P 9 0 R /InlineShape /Figure /X12 252 0 R 82 0 obj /P 9 0 R /K 10 << /Pg 20 0 R /K 23 90 0 obj endobj endobj /Rotate 0 /Type /Page /K 5 185 0 obj 169 0 obj endobj 170 0 obj << endobj /S /P /F4 253 0 R /P 9 0 R /StructParents 13 /Nums [0 [29 0 R 30 0 R 31 0 R 32 0 R 33 0 R 34 0 R 217 0 R 34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R endobj /S /P Every research uses one of the research paradigms to use as a guideline for developing rese… 179 0 obj /S /P /P 9 0 R Design/methodology/approach >> endobj /K 3 /P 9 0 R >> >> /P 87 0 R /K 4 /S /P /Annots [324 0 R 325 0 R] 59 0 obj >> endobj /CS1 [/ICCBased 284 0 R] /S /P >> >> >> >> >> << /P 9 0 R /Pg 26 0 R 62 0 obj << endobj Whatever type of educational research it might be, the goal of it is to generate such knowledge that describes, predicts, improves and also explains a process or practice related to human behavior or an educational phenomenon. endobj endobj << Introduction•Selects of the area•Identifies and defines•Reviews the literature•States hypotheses•Defines the objectives•Finalizes the research plan 2. 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2020 research paradigms in education