... No! Some of the giant marine reptiles of the Mesozoic Era, like Liopleurodon and Kronosaurus, weighed 30 or 40 tons, max, and a modern Great White Shark can only aspire to a relatively puny three tons. :61 A 2015 study linking shark size and typical swimming speed estimated that megalodon would have typically swum at 18 kilometers per hour (11 mph)–assuming that its body mass was typically 48 metric tons (53 short tons)–which is consistent with other aquatic creatures of its size, such as the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) which typically cruises at speeds of 14.5 to 21.5 km/h (9.0 to 13.4 mph). They placed the bite force of the latter between 108,514 to 182,201 newtons (24,395 to 40,960 lbf) in a posterior bite, compared to the 18,216 newtons (4,095 lbf) bite force for the largest confirmed great white shark, and 7,400 newtons (1,700 lbf) for the placoderm fish Dunkleosteus.  Infant megalodons were around 3.5 meters (11 ft) at their smallest,:61 and the pups were vulnerable to predation by other shark species, such as the great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran) and the snaggletooth shark (Hemipristis serra).  A 1974 study on Paleogene sharks by Henri Cappetta erected the subgenus Megaselachus, classifying the shark as Otodus (Megaselachus) megalodon, along with O. However, not all paleontologists agree with this classification, claiming that Megalodon and the Great White arrived at their striking similarities via the process of convergent evolution.  The genus Otodus is ultimately derived from Cretolamna, a shark from the Cretaceous period. It preyed upon fish, whales, dolphins, seals, and other marine animals.  A 2019 assessment moves the extinction date back to earlier in the Pliocene, 3.6 mya. , Megalodon is now considered to be a member of the family Otodontidae, genus Otodus, as opposed to its previous classification into Lamnidae, genus Carcharodon. Megalodon tooth fossils are common - in fact, they were used as jewellery by Native Americans for more than 10 000 years. Robyn Hanson/Wikimedia Commons / CC BY 2.0. Shimada stated that the previously proposed methods were based on a less-reliable evaluation of the dental homology between megalodon and the great white shark, and that the growth rate between the crown and root is not isometric, which he considered in his model. in South Africa).  Many whale bones have been found with deep gashes most likely made by their teeth. It was found in locations with a mean temperature ranging from 12 to 27 °C (54 to 81 °F), with a total range of 1 to 33 °C (34 to 91 °F), indicating that the global extent of suitable habitat should not have been greatly affected by the temperature changes that occurred. Most estimates of megalodon's size extrapolate from teeth, with maximum length estimates up to 14.2–16 meters (47–52 ft) and average length estimates of 10.5 meters (34 ft). :4, There was one apparent description of the shark in 1881 classifying it as Selache manzonii.  By the Late Miocene, around 11 mya, macroraptorials experienced a significant decline in abundance and diversity. Megalodon may have moved between coastal and oceanic waters, particularly in different stages of its life cycle. 5. , Sharks often employ complex hunting strategies to engage large prey animals. , The first attempt to reconstruct the jaw of megalodon was made by Bashford Dean in 1909, displayed at the American Museum of Natural History. (M.) chubutensis. Because of its size, megalodon was an apex predator in the ocean. Geological events changed currents and precipitation; among these were the closure of the Central American Seaway and changes in the Tethys Ocean, contributing to the cooling of the oceans. Using this model, the upper anterior tooth possessed by Gottfried and colleagues corresponded to a total length of 15 meters (49 ft). In the 1980s, megalodon was assigned to Carcharocles. :60 They asserted that O. megalodon could have reached a maximum of 20.3 meters (67 ft) in total length.  Megalodon bite marks on whale fossils suggests that it employed different hunting strategies against large prey than the great white shark.  It is possible that different populations of megalodon around the globe had different body sizes and behaviors due to different ecological pressures. Over the years the size estimations of the Megalodon shark have changed, as the science surrounding it's evolution has progressed. You have to go back 65 million years--to none other, once again, than Tyrannosaurus Rex—to find a creature that possessed bigger choppers, though the protruding canines of some saber-toothed cats were also in the same ballpark. Based on its fossil teeth and using the modern great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) as an analogue, it has been calculated that it reached a maximum total length (herein, TL) of ~ 15 to 18 m3,4,5. It is around 180 millimeters (7.1 inches). The Megalodon was found everywhere and was only unable to enter close to the coast due to its enormous size.  Meanwhile, juveniles likely had a diet that consisted more of fish. Shimada stated that the maximum total length estimates, based on upper anterior teeth that are available in museums, are 14.2 and 15.3 meters (47 and 50 ft), depending on the estimation method used. Technically, Megalodon is known as Carcharodon megalodon--meaning it's a species (Megalodon) of a larger shark genus (Carcharodon). The sperm whale is a little bit longer, but also lighter. He described his findings in the book The Head of a Shark Dissected, which also contained an illustration of a megalodon tooth. , In 1996, shark researchers Michael D. Gottfried, Leonard Compagno, and S. Curtis Bowman proposed a linear relationship between a shark's total length and the height of the largest upper anterior tooth. The biggest white shark ever documented was just a bit over 21-feet, though they are speculated to get larger. It may have had a pig-eyed appearance, in that it had small, deep-set eyes. Still, it is believed the megalodon mouth would be no less than 2 m in diameter when open. :77 Megalodon probably also had a tendency for cannibalism, much like contemporary sharks. Ancient giant predatory sharks made use of nurseries to rear their young millions of years ago, according to a new study investigating fossilised megalodon teeth.  In any event, it is thought to have been the largest macropredatory shark that ever lived. Serge Illaryonov/Wikimedia Commons / CC BY 3.0. The animal faced competition from whale-eating cetaceans, such as Livyatan and other macroraptorial sperm whales and possibly smaller ancestral killer whales. Since Megalodon is known by thousands of fossilized teeth but only a few scattered bones, its exact size has been a matter of contentious debate. , During the Pliocene, larger cetaceans appeared. The megalodon was an ancient shark which roamed the deep and remains one of the most terrifying creatures in Earth's history. :30–31 The evolution of this lineage is characterized by the increase of serrations, the widening of the crown, the development of a more triangular shape, and the disappearance of the lateral cusps. Megalodon had approximately 276 teeth, arranged in five rows in each jaw. Bob Strauss is a science writer and the author of several books, including "The Big Book of What, How and Why" and "A Field Guide to the Dinosaurs of North America. :77 However, an analysis of the distribution of megalodon over time suggests that temperature change did not play a direct role in its extinction. , While the earliest megalodon remains have been reported from the Late Oligocene, around 28 million years ago (mya), there is disagreement as to when it appeared, with dates ranging to as young as 16 mya. ", "Miocene sharks in the Kendeace and Grand Bay formations of Carriacou, The Grenadines, Lesser Antilles", "Largest Great White Shark Don't Outweigh Whales, but They Hold Their Own", "Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna", "Is the scaling of swim speed in sharks driven by metabolism? , In 2019, Shimada revisited the size of megalodon and discouraged using non-anterior teeth for estimations, noting that the exact position of isolated non-anterior teeth is difficult to identify. This interpretation was corrected in 1667 by Danish naturalist Nicolas Steno, who recognized them as shark teeth, and famously produced a depiction of a shark's head bearing such teeth. May 19, 2014 - A size comparison between teeth of the extinct Megalodon and today's Great White shark. Its genus placement is still debated, authors placing it in either Carcharocles, Megaselachus, Otodus, or Procarcharodon. Unlike the great white, which attacks prey from the soft underside, megalodon probably used its strong jaws to break through the chest cavity and puncture the heart and lungs of its prey. , Fossil evidence indicates that megalodon preyed upon many cetacean species, such as dolphins, small whales, cetotheres, squalodontids (shark toothed dolphins), sperm whales, bowhead whales, and rorquals.  Several films depict megalodon, such as Shark Attack 3: Megalodon and the Mega Shark series (for instance Mega Shark Versus Giant Octopus and Mega Shark Versus Crocosaurus). The largest fluctuation of sea levels in the Cenozoic era occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene, between around 5 million to 12 thousand years ago, due to the expansion of glaciers at the poles, which negatively impacted coastal environments, and may have contributed to its extinction along with those of several other marine megafaunal species. Megalodon Had the Most Powerful Bite of Any Creature That Ever Lived.  The discovery of fossils assigned to the genus Megalolamna in 2016 led to a re-evaluation of Otodus, which concluded that it is paraphyletic, that is, it consists of a last common ancestor but it does not include all of its descendants. Corey Ford/Stocktrek Images / Getty Images. , Though sharks are generally opportunistic feeders, megalodon's great size, high-speed swimming capability, and powerful jaws, coupled with an impressive feeding apparatus, made it an apex predator capable of consuming a broad spectrum of animals.  The genus was proposed by D. S. Jordan and H. Hannibal in 1923 to contain C. auriculatus. , The coprolite remains of megalodon are spiral-shaped, indicating that the shark may have had a spiral valve, a corkscrew-shaped portion of the lower intestines, similar to extant lamniform sharks. , One interpretation on how megalodon appeared was that it was a robust-looking shark, and may have had a similar build to the great white shark.  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2020 megalodon mouth size