[11] Following the Spanish explorations and settlement in the Caribbean, Spanish conquest of Mexico and the Spanish conquest of Peru, the crown established high courts (Audiencias) in important regions and viceroyalties (Mexico, 1535; Peru, 1542) with the viceroy (vice-king) and the Audiencias the effective administrators of royal policy. The monarch "arbitrates and moderates the regular functioning of the institutions" and assumes the highest representation of the Spanish State in international relations. In 1931 local and municipal elections produced victories (particularly in urban areas) for candidates favoring an end to the monarchy and the establishment of a republic. [71] The king's mantra for Spanish business; "Export, export, export! The oath as taken by President Zapatero on his second term in office on 17 April 2004 was:[45]. Governments and the Cortes sit for a term no longer than four years when the president tenders his resignation to the king and advises the king to dissolve the Cortes, prompting a General Election. Philip V was the first member of the House of Bourbon (Spanish: Borbón) to rule Spain. To be informed of the affairs of State and, for this purpose, to preside over the meetings of the Council of Ministers whenever, he sees fit, at the President of the Government's request. These changes, collectively known as the Bourbon Reforms, attempted to rationalize administration and produce more revenue from the overseas empire.[12]. She came from a middle-class family and worked as a journalist for ABC and EFE before becoming a news anchor at CNN+ and Televisión Española. [19] For the Crown to nominate the political leader whose party controls the Cortes can be seen as a royal endorsement of the democratic process, a fundamental concept enshrined in the 1978 constitution. Queen Letizia of Spain: Latest News On King Felipe VI\'s Wife. [15][111] King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía have spent the majority of their time at the La Zarzuela Palace, a former hunting lodge on the El Pardo estate on the outskirts of Madrid. Despite Franco's alliance with the Carlists, Franco appointed Juan Carlos I de Borbón as his successor, who is credited with presiding over Spain's transition from dictatorship to democracy by fully endorsing political reforms. The Spanish monarchy is currently represented by King Felipe VI, Queen Letizia, and their daughters Leonor, Princess of Asturias, and Infan… The Spanish news journalist turned royal has 2 daughters, Leonor & Sofia, with the King I swear faithfully to discharge my functions, to sustain and see to it that the Constitution and the Laws are sustained, and to respect the rights of the citizens and of the autonomous communities. When the media asked King Juan Carlos if he would endorse the 2005 bill legalizing gay marriages (the implication being that he may not endorse the bill), he answered "Soy el Rey de España y no el de Bélgica" ("I am the King of Spain, not of Belgium") – a reference to King Baudouin I of Belgium who had refused to sign the Belgian law legalising abortion in Belgium.[49]. [71] The king's role as a "business diplomat and deal maker" for his country's interest was brought to light during the safari scandal, as the safari was paid for by Mohamed Eyad Kayali, a Syrian construction magnate and longtime friend of the king. [96] Royal patronage conveys a sense of official credibility as the organization is vetted for suitability. Paving the way, in 2006 King Juan Carlos issued a decree reforming the succession to noble titles from male preference primogeniture to absolute primogeniture. The king's nominee is presented before the Cortes by the Speaker where the nominee and his political agenda are debated and submitted for a Vote of Confidence (Cuestión de confianza) by the Cortes. In the event that a president dies or becomes incapacitated while in office, then the government as a whole resigns and the process of royal nomination and appointment takes place. [1] Additionally, Satrústegui was "anxious to remove" notions that the constitutional monarchy had any Francoist origins, according to author Charles Powell.[1]. Located at the During his reign between 1975 and 2014, King Juan Carlos awarded peerages to two of his former prime ministers who had retired from active politics: Adolfo Suárez, who was created 1st Duke of Suárez; and Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo who was created 1st Marquess of la Ría de Ribadeo. Spanish Baroque was similar to Italian Baroque but with a greater emphasis on surface decorations. The king and members of the royal family have represented Spain in Europe, Latin America, in the United States and in Canada, nations in the Middle East and North Africa, in China, Japan, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand and many countries in sub-Sahara Africa. [92], In recent years, however, public opinion on the form of organization of the Head of State has become increasingly divided, with polls confirming a technical tie between monarchists and republicans since 2018.[93][94][95]. The king and queen preside over many official functions at the Oriente Palace in Madrid. His acts shall always be countersigned in the manner established in section 64. [6][15], The Crown of Spain (la Corona de España), with its roots in the Visigothic kingdom from the 5th century and subsequent successor states, is recognized in Title II The Crown, Articles 56 through 65 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. Subsequently, Castilian and Aragonese Cortes alleged oath to him as co-monarch with his mother. [19] Following the second vote, if confidence by the Cortes is still unreached, then the monarch again meets with political leaders and the Speaker, and submits a new nominee for a vote of confidence. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. [109] The king is assigned personal aides-de-camp for his assistance, and by extension to his wife the queen and to Princess Sofía. No minister may take up his appointment until after they give their oath of office to obey the constitution with loyalty to the king. [71] [19], In the political life of Spain, the king would already be familiar with the various political leaders in a professional capacity, and perhaps less formally in a more social capacity, facilitating their meeting following a General Election. A coup d'état restored the Bourbon dynasty to the throne in 1874. The monarchy in Spain has its roots in the Visigothic Kingdom and its Christian successor states of Navarre, Asturias (later Leon and Castille) and Aragon, which fought the Reconquista or Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula following the Umayyad invasion of Hispania in the 8th century. England’s enmity with Spain ended with the deaths of Philip and Elizabeth, when King James I—son of Mary Queen of Scots—signed a peace treaty in … The Spanish Empire became one of the first global powers as Isabella and Ferdinand funded Christopher Columbus's exploratory voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 re-established[1][4] a constitutional monarchy as the form of government for Spain after the end Francoist regime and the restoration of the democracy by Adolfo Suárez in 1975. The debate on amending the Crown's succession law came to the forefront on 31 October 2005, when Infanta Leonor was born to the current King and Queen of Spain. Following his abdication in 2014, Juan Carlos I and his wife Sofía retain courtesy titles of King and Queen of Spain. In the event of coalitions, the political leaders would customarily have met beforehand to hammer out a coalition agreements before their meeting with the king. [109] In 2011 the king addressed the perennial critique of the monarchy; that of how the annual budget awarded to the monarchy and royal household is spent. [27] Succession of titles may follow one of several courses listed on the Title of Concession when the title is created. [109] The Princess of Asturias is entitled to, in future, personal aides-de-camp, drawn from the army, the navy and the air force.[109]. [1] The king reconciled long standing historic tensions with the Netherlands and cultivated relationships with France and Germany which led directly to Spain's entry into the European Community and into NATO. As prince, King Felipe chaired the Prince of Asturias Foundation (Fundación Príncipe de Asturias), which aims to promote "scientific, cultural and humanistic values that form part of mankind's universal heritage. [57][incomplete short citation]. [2], No provision within the constitution invests the king with the ability to veto legislation directly; however, no provision prohibits the king from withholding royal assent, effectively a veto. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Prince of Asturias, upon reaching the age of majority, in addition to any regent(s) upon assuming the office, swears the same oath as that of the king along with a further oath of loyalty to the monarch. [85] Of the events surrounding the safari, the contrite king issued a rare apology and said "I am very sorry. King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain king, queen, Spain, Juan Caros I, Sophia of Greece. [109] Aides-de-camp are drawn from all of the services, from the Army, from the Navy, from the Air Force, and from the Civil Guard. However, she was kept prisoner at Tordesillas due to her mental disorder. However, a title holder may designate his successor, Succession by Assignment, or disperse his titles among his children – with the eldest getting the highest-ranking title, Succession by Distribution.[27]. To achieve balance, royal household speechwriters confer with the Foreign Ministry to ensure that the official speeches strike the desired diplomatic tone between the king's views and government policy. The unification of Spain is marked from this date, though the Spanish kingdoms continued past that date. 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