University of California IPM Online: Hackberry—Celtis spp, University of California IPM Online: Hackberry Wooly Aphid, University of California IPM Online: Scales, University of California IPM Online: Psyllids. Hackberry psyllids are not harmful to people or pets and will not attack house plants, stored products or furnishings. Diseases. Though the infestations can cause this tree to take on an unsightly appearance, in most cases the infestations do not inhibit the tree’s long lifespan. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. With winged and four-legged companions come other pests such as insects, fungal infections, and parasitic plants. Native and planted trees died slowly from an unknown cause. Occasionally netleaf hackberry will fall prey to aphid attacks as well as swollen leaf galls. The grey-brown to silvery bark has some warty projections or corky ridges, making it attractive in wintertime. Witches broom is caused by a mite and powdery mildew. Diseases: Several fungi cause leaf spots on hackberry. Prune out the clusters of twigs when practical. The females lay their eggs on the underside of the tree’s foliage, and these pests can quickly infest the hackberry. Most common of the insects that the tree attracts are the hackberry bud gall maker, hackberry petiole gall psyllid, hackberry blister gall psyllid, and hackberry nipple gall maker. These trees can live 150 to 200 years. Insects, Diseases, or Other Plant Problems: Witches’ broom (creating dwarfed, dense, contorted twig clusters at the branch ends) is somewhat common; while it does little harm to the tree, but can be quite unsightly. These tiny green and grayish pests appear as small, bluish-white bugs because of the waxy secretions they spray over their bodies. The light color makes them easily identifiable against the hackberry’s dark green leaves. Many short twigs develop close together from a swelling on a branch. The disease is worse during wet weather but chemical controls are seldom needed. Hackberry Tree Pests Psyllid. Abiotic damage. It is commonly used as a street tree because of its ability to withstand drought and urban environments, and it is among the best trees for wildlife. The leaves of Hackberry trees are eaten by gall producing insects of the genus pachpysylla. The worst thing about hackberry is that woolly aphids feeding on the leaves drip sticky honeydew. Birds love the small orange fruit that ripen in the fall when they turn this small shrub in to a cacophony of bird activity. The Houma Indians used hackberry bark to make a decoction for sore throats and a decoction mixed with powdered shells to treat venereal disease. The hackberry tree is most commonly pestered by an array of psyllids, including the nipple gall maker, the bud... Aphids. The hackberry tree, or Celtis occidentalis, is a vigorously growing member of the elm family. The small tree produces an orange-red to dark purple drupe that matures in the fall. It is most common on Celtis occidentalis. It produces bumpy, grayish bark and dark green, simple foliage with low-hanging, droopy branches. The wart-like growths on the hackberry leaves are galls. Hackberry psyllids are small aphid-like insects that cause the galls commonly seen on the underside of hackberry tree leaves. Parts of the hackberry trees have been used in the production of drugs so that should lead some credence that the Native Americans were correct in using the Hackberry tree for medical purposes. Smith's articles have appeared in the "Houston Chronicle" and on various websites, drawing on her extensive experience in corporate management and property/casualty insurance. In past years, no association was found between the leaf drop and insects or diseases. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Hackberry nipple gall is probably the most common disease to infect hackberry trees. If the hackberry is severely infected, reapply the insecticide spray in 14 days. Root Rot Diseases: Root rot diseases are caused by fungi that are found in the soil and attack the … The main symptom is clusters of twigs scattered throughout the tree crown. Treat the hackberry once per season to control the insect population and avoid infestations. It contributes to the undesirability of hackberry as a shade tree throughout much of its range. Witches' broom is caused by a mite and powdery mildew. The hackberry trees are prone to insects and fungal infections, which feed off them. Leaves are 2–5 in (5–13 cm) long, ovate-lanceolate in shape, with finely toothed margins. The hackberry wooly aphids are Asian natives that feed on the hackberry tree’s foliage. The desert hackberry is the perfect small shrubby tree for the bird lovers out there. Similar to aphids, these insects feed on the tree’s liquids and leave behind honeydew excretions that make the hackberry tree vulnerable to fungal infections. Aphids, cankerworms and forest tent caterpillars can cause ornamental damage to the hackberry. The Hackberry tree (Celtis occidentalis) is one of the most unique trees native to North America, but you may not have heard of the Hackberry tree because it goes by many different names.If you would like to know everything that can be known about this tree you have come to the right place. With green areas around the yellow spots, affected leaves appear as yellow islands in a sea of green, thus the name island chlorosis. Although the aphids’ feeding does not inhibit the hackberry’s growth, the honeydew excretions left behind promote sooty mold infections that can result in the hackberry’s downfall. Hackberry Tree Pests and Problems. Its fleshy, purple-brown berries ripen in late summer and persist through winter. The natural distribution area of Common hackberry is located in eastern North America. The gall is … Witches' broom is a very common disfiguring disease of hackberry. They... Other Pests. The gall found on the hackberry leaves is referred to as the hackberry nipple gall. This very large, broad, fast growing deciduous North American native tree has a rounded vase crown with spreading, pendulous branches. It is also known as the nettletree, sugarberry, beaverwood, northern hackberry, and American hackberry. Celtis occidentalis, commonly known as the common hackberry, is a large deciduous tree native to North America. Also known as the northern hackberry and American hackberry, the common hackberry is easily recognizable from a distance by its light gray, warty bark on massive trunks. While psyllid, scale and aphid infestations are most aggressive during the spring months, the hackberry can experience continuous infestations in climates that remain moderately warm throughout the year. Apply the spray only on clear, warm days when there is no rain expected for at least 24 hours and no fog in the air. Spray the chemical thoroughly onto the hackberry’s foliage, stems and bark until the tree is saturated with the chemical. They are quite common on trees. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. The forage value is fair for the wildlife and poor for livestock. Plant form of common hackberry. can damage a tree. Pests and Diseases This species is hardy and resistant to many pests and diseases, being particularly resistant to cotton root rot fungus as well as honey fungus. Chances are these are leaf galls. Hackberry trees are susceptible to infestation from the hackberry woolly aphid. The infested hackberry develops brown blisterlike galls on its foliage, petioles and wood, leaving clear evidence of the psyllids presence. These long yet tiny pests, often called jumping plant lice, are winged insects that live in the hackberry’s crevices and bark while feeding on the tree’s evergreen foliage. The Asian native pest is also referred to as the Asian woolly hackberry aphid and it primarily infests the Chinese hackberry. A: You likely have a population of aphids in the tree. Scales are wingless, pale-colored insects that feed on every area of the hackberry tree, including its bark, foliage and stems. The exact cause has never been determined. northern hackberry Leaf Type: Deciduous Texas Native: Firewise: Tree Description: A medium to large tree, becoming 60 to 100 feet or more tall and 2 feet or more in diameter, with a round or oval crown and limbs that often end in slender, drooping branches. It could also be seen on the leaves of nearby plants. Sooty mold grows on the honeydew, blackening absolutely everything under the tree. Hackberry psyllids are aphid-like jumping insects that are extremely common on hackberry trees. In spring, small, stalked, light green flowers mature. Reaching heights to 60 feet, the hackberry tree attracts a host of pests that feed and take shelter in the tree. The medium-textured, light green leaves turn bright yellow in fall and can be showy in some years. The bark is gray and smooth with small warts. To treat the infestation, use a horticultural oil-based insecticide spray. Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced to form by mites, insects, or other small organisms. Why do we need this? Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Although the hackberry is rarely killed by psyllid infestations, severely infested trees experience defoliation. Leaves have a longer, slenderer tip than Celtis occidentalis. Writing professionally since 2004, Charmayne Smith focuses on corporate materials such as training manuals, business plans, grant applications and technical manuals. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement. The leaves of hackberry have a rough texture, like sandpaper. Hackberry is easy to recognize by its silvery-gray bark encrusted with warty ridges. The main symptom is clusters of twigs scattered throughout the tree crown. Since the hackberry is rarely harmed by pest infestations and is always susceptible to these visitors, treat only severe infestations. View our privacy policy. The hackberry wooly aphids are Asian natives that feed on the hackberry tree’s foliage. Still remember that when a trunk canker develops, the tree may begin to compartmentalize off the area by sealing wood cells off around the canker. The tree is susceptible to fire damage. Aphids may... Disease. Hackberry Tree Problems Hackberry Psyllid. The tree may be covered with witches' brooms. Hackberry Tree Info. If a large canker is on the main trunk, the tree may ultimately need to be replaced. Fall leaf … Dwarf Hackberry is a deciduous tree that may grow 20 to 30 feet tall. The disease is worse during wet weather, but chemical controls are seldom needed. It is somewhat prone to developing witches'-broom, which is caused by fungi and mites. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. The fruits are eaten by birds and other animals. If the hackberry tree experiences sooty mold infections as a result of the infestation, treat the infestation with the same horticultural insecticide. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community. Although not noticeable, the flowers occur in early spring and develop into rounded, succulent, reddish brown fruits (drupes) that persists on the tree throughout the winter. The persistent fruits attract many birds that also find the tree to be a suitable nesting site. Hail, high winds, frost, dry spells, etc. Why is my hackberry tree losing some of its new leaves? But, these insects do not cause any serious damage to the Hackberry tree. An alternative name is hackberry “gall-maker.” They are most commonly noticed, however, as a household nuisance in late summer and fall. Open-grown sugarberry commonly reaches 50 to 70 feet in height wi… Apart from tree diseases that affect the leaves, trees can also be affected by pests, fungi diseases and other damages. The leaves are dull green to glossy with a network of veining and serrated except at their base. The leaves are alternate with a smooth or toothed margin and asymmetrical base. This fall the deck was covered with a sticky, saplike substance that turned a bright green umbrella black. Armillaria root rot is a likely fungal disease of hackberry, and … To control canker disease on trees, cut off the affected branch or limb using proper pruning methods. Have you ever picked up a leaf that was dotted with bumps or had long protrusions dangling from it? The wood of the hackberry tree is soft and relatively weak, and decays rapidly when the wood drops and is exposed to the elements. Plant them away from these areas or plan on sweeping regularly. The pest Scolytus Muticus Engraver attacks on the dying and dead branches of Hackberry trees. Prunus serotina is a medium-sized, fast-growing forest tree growing to a height of 50–80 ft (15–24 m). The gall is a tiny, round ball that forms attached to the leaves, it is caused by a very small insect, a psyllid. These tiny green and... Scales. Hackberry (C. occidentalis) is a large native tree found commonly on river terraces and floodplains in southern and central Minnesota.It is related to the American elm and after the arrival of Dutch elm disease in Minnesota, hackberry often replaced American elms both in native forests and in planted landscapes. Q: There is a big hackberry tree in my back yard that provides welcome shade to our deck; we tolerate the leaves it also drops. Several species of gall-making psyllids infest hackberry trees. The hackberry tree is most commonly pestered by an array of psyllids, including the nipple gall maker, the bud gall maker, the petiole gall psyllid and the blister gall psyllid. They are a temporary nuisance. The appearance of these damages can be numerous (dried leaves, cracked bark, broken limbs). Small, blue-black fruits favored by birds spread seedlings all over. To the untrained eye, these insects are often misdiagnosed because of their appearance and immobility. Fungi that mostly affect this tree are the witches’ broom disease, which causes rosette formation on the branches. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. This insect is not harmful to the tree, other than an aesthetic nuisance. It is a moderately long-lived hardwood with a light-colored wood, yellowish gray to light brown with yellow streaks. Sphaerotheca phytophila (a powdery mildew) and an eryophyid mite (Eriophyes celtis) Remove unsightly trees. Hackberry psyllids are very common in hackberry trees and often cause a gall to form on the underside of many of the leaves on the tree. The leaf underside has large, netlike veins. Infested hackberry trees do not seem to be harmed by these galls, but their abundance makes hackberry leaves look pretty ugly. Hackberry is a Chicago-area native and a sturdy, tolerant shade tree for streets and parkways, or parks and other large areas. Several fungi cause leaf spots on hackberry. Informational table showing disease name, symptoms, pathogen/cause, and management of Hackberry diseases. Hackberry nipple gall also does not hurt the tree, but can disfigure the leaves. The tree may be covered with witches' brooms. Feel free to prune away any ailing or blackened foliage. The loss of leaves on hackberries in spring is an occasional phenomenon in Iowa and surrounding states. Another such problem of i… Parasites can attack the host plant in these damaged areas. These are very blocky because they are delineated by veins. The bark is far less warty than Celtis occidentalis. Island chlorosis is a disease that appears on hackberry leaves as yellow spots. Disease Symptoms Pathogen/Cause Management; Witches' broom: Many short twigs develop close together from a swelling on a branch. Aphid and it primarily infests the Chinese hackberry, these insects are often misdiagnosed because of their appearance and.! 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2020 hackberry tree leaf diseases