Parfit develops further his influential treatment of reasons, normativity, the meaning of moral discourse, and the status of morality. This is known as the 'non-identity problem'. INVITED CONFERENCES Invited speaker at the Vancouver workshop on Time Bias and Future Planning (March 2015). Oxford: Oxford University Press. In some cases, he used examples seemingly inspired by Star Trek and other science fiction, such as the teletransporter, to explore our intuitions about our identity. Parfit attended Eton College before entering the University of Oxford in 1961 to study modern history (B.A. Thus although everyone is better off, this is not the preferred outcome. "[11], Parfit was born in 1942 in Chengdu, China, the son of Jessie (née Browne) and Norman Parfit, medical doctors who had moved to Western China to teach preventive medicine in missionary hospitals. and Persons,” in Derek Parfit’s Reasons and Persons: An Introduction and Critical Inquiry, edited by Andrea Sauchelli (Routledge, 2020), pp. Cosmic possibilities cover everything that ever exists, and are the different ways that the whole of reality might be. Self-interest and consequentialism fail indirectly, while common-sense morality is directly collectively self-defeating. 13–29. CONTACT INFORMATION. Laurent Jaffro, Christophe Salvat. The first formulation Parfit calls the "Hedonistic version of the Impersonal Total Principle": "If other things are equal, the best outcome is the one in which there would be the greatest quantity of happiness—the greatest net sum of happiness minus misery. …that was ingeniously explored in Parfit’s aforementioned. He retained his appointments as regular Visiting Professor at Harvard, NYU, and Rutgers until his death. But that question wrongly assumes that our wealth is ours to give. Derek Parfits praktische Philosophie in der Diskussion (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2017). Derek Parfit discusses two separate theories of personal identity, the Ego theory and the Bundle theory. Many of his peers considered him the most important moral philosopher of the 20th and early [22] He was a member of Giving What We Can and pledged to donate at least 10% of his income to effective charities. 7, 31 March 2016. His subject areas include philosophy, law, social science, politics, political theory, and religion. Other people are closer. There have been a number of responses to Parfit's utilitarian calculus and his conclusion regarding future lives, including challenges to what life in the A-world would be like and whether life in the Z-world would differ very much from a normal privileged life; that movement from the A-world to the Z-world can be blocked by discontinuity; that rather than accepting the utilitarian premise of maximizing happiness, emphasis should be placed on the converse, minimizing suffering; challenging Parfit's teleological framework by arguing that "better than" is a transitive relation and removing the transitive axiom of the all-things-considered-better-than relation; proposing a minimal threshold of liberties and primary social goods to be distributed; and taking a deontological approach that looks to values and their transmission through time.[20]. [14]:388, In the section titled "Overpopulation," Parfit distinguishes between average utilitarianism and total utilitarianism. In many cases self-interest instructs us precisely not to follow self-interest, thus fitting the definition of an indirectly self-defeating theory.[14]:163–165. [14]:349–441 Parfit discusses possible futures and population growth in Chapter 17 of Reasons and Persons. [10], He then studied Modern History at Balliol College, Oxford, graduating in 1964. In 1965–66 he was a Harkness Fellow at Columbia University and Harvard University. A reader asked me to clarify a distinction, that was made in a previous post, between a local and a cosmic possibility in the philosophy of Derek Parfit.Here are Parfit’s exacts words on the distinction: “ It will help to distinguish two kinds of possibility. 39, No. 1998. Assume also that Americans benefit from immigration (at least in small amounts) because they get cheap labour, etc. [10] Richards believes Parfit had Asperger syndrome. He formulates average utilitarianism in two ways. In the book he argues that the affluent have strong moral obligations to the poor: "One thing that greatly matters is the failure of we rich people to prevent, as we so easily could, much of the suffering and many of the early deaths of the poorest people in the world. But the fact that the patient is alive is not an independent or separately obtaining fact. Derek Antony Parfit FBA was a British philosopher who specialised in personal identity, rationality, and ethics. In 2007, Kagan's course about death was offered for free online, and proved to be very popular. Appointments held. Parfit held that conventional philosophical notions regarding the nature of persons and their presumed identity over time are mistaken. CONTACT INFORMATION. “On the Survival of Humanity, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 47.2-3 (2017): 344-367. [14]:387, Applying total utilitarian standards (absolute total happiness) to possible population growth and welfare leads to what he calls the repugnant conclusion: "For any possible population of at least ten billion people, all with a very high quality of life, there must be some much larger imaginable population whose existence, if other things are equal, would be better, even though its members have lives that are barely worth living. Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy and the Center for Human Values, Princeton University. [18] Johnston maintains, "Even if the lower-level facts [that make up identity] do not in themselves matter, the higher-level fact may matter. 12 avr. Herzog & de Meuron est une agence d'architecture suisse basée à Bâle, créé en 1978 par Jacques Herzog et Pierre de Meuron.. L'agence a réalisé la Tate Modern dans le district de Bankside à Londres, et a obtenu le prix Pritzker en 2001 pour l'ensemble de ses réalisations [1].Herzog & de Meuron possède des succursales à Londres, Hambourg, New York City et Tōkyō. Following David Hume, Parfit argued that no unique entity, such as a self, unifies a person's experiences and dispositions over time. In his second book, Parfit argues for moral realism, insisting that moral questions have true and false answers. Ethics; Decision Theory; Formal Epistemology; Philosophy of Probability. 8. This wealth is legally ours. The final part comprises seven new essays on Kant, reasons, and why the universe exists. “Under Rhodes”, on Rhodes Must Fall. The money that we spend on an evening’s entertainment might instead save some poor person from death, blindness, or chronic and severe pain. Further, he suggests that the three most prominent categories of views in moral philosophy—Kantian deontology, consequentalism, and contractarianism (or contractualism)—converge on the same answers to moral questions. • Other speakers included Meghan Sullivan, Tom Dougherty, Chrisoula Andreou, and Hallie Liberto. He posited that self-interest has been dominant in Western culture for over two millennia, often making bedfellows with religious doctrine, which united self-interest and morality. Fearn, Nicholas. He was also a visiting professor of philosophy at Harvard University, New York University, and Rutgers University. Parfit contended that to be indirectly individually self-defeating and directly collectively self-defeating is not fatally damaging for S. To further bury self-interest, he exploited its partial relativity, juxtaposing temporally neutral demands against agent-centred demands. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential moral philosophers of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. 9.“A Righteous Fury”, on Martha Nussbaum’s Anger and Forgiveness, The Nation, December 19/26, 2016. My life seemed like a glass tunnel, through which I was moving faster every year, and at the end of which there was darkness... [However] When I changed my view, the walls of my glass tunnel disappeared. A key Parfitian question is: given the choice between surviving without psychological continuity and connectedness (Relation R) and dying but preserving R through someone else's future existence, which would you choose? Hegel, G.W.F. For instance, a significant change in global environmental policy would shift the conditions of the conception process so much that after 300 years none of the same people that would have been born are in fact born. 706–717. In part four of Reasons and Persons, Parfit discusses possible futures for the world. [14]:351 He calls this "The Time-Dependence Claim": "If any particular person had not been conceived when he was in fact conceived, it is in fact true that he would never have existed".[14]:351. After obtaining their degrees in 1935, they moved from England to China to teach preventive medicine. Parfit then discusses the identity of future generations. Derek Parfit discusses two separate theories of personal identity, the Ego theory and the Bundle theory. In B, there are 20 billion people all living lives that, while slightly less happy than those in A, are still very happy. We'll conclude the semester by examining recent debates over the nature of moral facts. Vente de livres numériques. Education. Relevant to an applied ethics discussion of overpopulation. "[14]:387 He then describes the other formulation, the "non-Hedonistic Impersonal Total Principle": "If other things are equal, the best outcome is the one in which there would be the greatest quantity of whatever makes life worth living. (1) A party may move for a summary judgment for all or part of the relief for which he has prayed. Jussi Suikkanen and John Cottingham (Editors), This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 23:08. Scruton believes that many of them are deceptive; for example, he does not believe one must be a consequentialist to believe that it is morally required to pull the switch in the trolley problem, as Parfit assumes. While he was at Columbia University and Harvard University on a Harkness fellowship in 1964–67, his interests shifted to philosophy, and in 1967 he won a prize fellowship in philosophy at Oxford’s All Souls College. Toby David Godfrey Ord (né le 18 juillet 1979) est un philosophe australien.Il est le fondateur de Giving What We Can, une organisation internationale vouée à l'élimination de … CONTACT INFORMATION. In 2014 he received the Rolf Schock Prize in logic and philosophy, awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Reprinted in The Aspen Institute. Curriculum Vitae Amia Srinivasan ACADEMIC POSITIONS Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory, All Souls College, Oxford 2020 - Associate Professor of Philosophy, St John’s College, Oxford 2018-2019 ... “Remembering Derek Parfit”, London Review of Books, Vol. “Philosophy and ‘Common Sense’” (7/25/16). Des personnes aux raisons : Autour de Derek Parfit. April 2019. “Remembering Derek Parfit”, London Review of Books, Vol. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. It does not fail on its own terms, but it does recommend adoption of an alternative framework of rationality. Following David Hume (1711–76), he argued that there is no unique entity, a “self,” that underlies the mental experiences and dispositions that may be attributed to a single individual at a given time. halshs-02135991 Because self-interest demands that we always make self-interest our supreme rational concern and instructs us to ensure that our whole life goes as well as possible, self-interest makes temporally neutral requirements. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Découvrez vos propres épingles sur Pinterest et enregistrez-les. Des personnes aux raisons : Autour de Derek Parfit. • Committee: Thomas Nagel (Chair), Derek Parfit, Sharon Street • Focus: Political theory, moral philosophy, and metaethics • Coursework completed: 2006; Attended University of … Derek Parfit (1942-2017) gilt als einer der bedeutendsten zeitgenössischen Moralphilosophen, der die Debatten um personale Identität, zum Prioritarismus, zur Populationsethik und zur Frage nach Pflichten gegenüber kommenden Generationen über Jahrzehnte geprägt hat. The most important thesis of On What Matters is that the three main theoretical traditions in normative ethics—consequentialism, Kantianism, and contractualism (based on the notion of a social contract)—are ultimately not in conflict with one another. CURRICULUM VITAE. 10. 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