Common terms and phrases. isolated from S. platensis a novel sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), which inhibits the replication in vitro of several enveloped viruses including HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus, measles virus, mumps virus, influenza A virus, and HIV-1 virus. Spirulina is also rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity [1]. I.S. Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a filamentous and multicellular blue-green alga capable of reducing inflammation and also manifesting antioxidant effects. De grootste concentraties zijn tegenwoordig te vinden in Mexico, in Centraal-Afrika en in Oost-Afrika. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was tested for biosorption properties. Spirulina Platensis Arthrospira. Spirulina-alg is een van de bekendere algensoort in Nederland en valt onder de zoutwater algen en bevat dus ook jodium. UK Taylor & Francis Ltd, 1 Gunpowder Square, London EC4A 3DE USA Taylor & Francis Inc., 1900 Frost Road, Suite 101, Bristol, PA 19007 Recently, Ayehunie et al. It contains proteins (~ 60%), carbohydrate (~ 15%), lipids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. In a similar trend, other bioactive components from S. platensis were explored due to anti-HSV activity. They range in size from a single cell to giant kelp over 150 feet long. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Ca-SP was determined to be fivefold higher than that of dextran sulfate (Hayashi et al., 1996a,b). 3.3). Spirulina platensis after biosorption can be used as a valuable carrier of elements. Lee and workers reported that spirulina supplementation for 12 weeks significantly reduced plasma malondialdehyde level and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes (Lee et al., 2008). Groups Treatments CD Control Diet HD Hypercholesterolemic Diet HD+ S Hypercholesterolemic Diet with Spirulina Spirulina Platensis, a blue-green algae, has been recognized and used worldwide as a traditional source of protein in the food industry. Botanical Name and Family of Spirulina. Moreover, purified C-phycocyanin from S. platensis markedly inhibited the growth of some drug-resistant bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus (Sarada et al., 2011). There are many patents regarding the utilization of PEs as food colorants (Sekar & Chandramohan, 2008), mainly intended for Asiatic countries. According to Hayashi and co-workers, the water extract of Spirulina platensis was shown to inhibit the replication in vitro of HSV-1 in HeLa cells within the concentration range of 0.08–50 mg/mL (Hayashi et al., 1993). It’s considered to be a superfood because of its high concentration of nutrients, including protein, vitamins, and minerals. Filter presses can be used as well. Equilibrium of biosorption was tested for Cr(III), Mn(II) and Mg(II) ions, since these elements are crucial for animals with metabolic disorders. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. © 2019 The Authors. Spirulina is een voedingssupplement, vervaardigd uit de blauwgroene spiraalvormige cyanobacteriën Arthrospira platensis en/of Arthrospira maxima; organismen met een voorkeur voor een alkalisch milieu. Although the introduction of two separate genera is now generally accepted, there has been much … Surface pressure of Spirulina platensis strain Pacifica protein isolate as a function of area mg−1 for a volume of 100 μl spread from a solution of 1 mg ml−1 of protein isolate dissolved in ethanol: 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mM NaCl, pH 7.5 (3: 1 v/v). Operations to dehydrate biomass are normally done by drum-drying, sun-drying, or spray-drying; drum-drying is the most widely preferred. The growth medium contains inorganic salts with a high concentration of bicarbonate, keeping the pH value between 9 and 10. Addition of the S. platensis extract (1 mg/mL) at 3 h before infection causes blockade of virus-specific protein synthesis at 50% effective inhibition dose (ED 50) value of 0.173 mg/mL without affecting host cell protein synthesis. The objective of the study was to determine the lipid-lowering effects of Spirulina in Cretan Greek dyslipidaemic patients, and to document its effectiveness as a possible alternative treatment for … can also be used as a food colorant (Dufossé et al., 2005). The mature trichomes of Arthrospira are a few millimetres long and consist of 3–12 μm diameter cylindrical cells (Fig. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Premium grade, ISO en GMP gecertificeerd! Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Today, even NASA uses spirulina to reap its benefits. It thrives best under pesticide-free conditions with plenty of sunlight and moderate temperature levels, but it is also highly adaptable, surviving even in extreme conditions. Philip F. Solter, Val R. Beasley, in Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition), 2013. Historically mistaken for Eukaryotes, a type of fungi, it is a non-toxic species of cyanobacteria with a wide array of medical, nutritional, and commercial value. In this study, the light intensity and initial biomass concentration were manipulated to improve cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis in … But in some texts, Spirulina is considered as the supplement material of Arthrospira platensis. Its inclusion with the phylum Cyanobacteria as seen in Figure 2 indicates that A. platensis has a characteristic blue-green color (giving the prefix "cyano-") based on the wavelengths of light that it is able to absorb. Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2019.10.004. Details on commercial culture and applications as well as aspects of the physiology of this alga can be found in Belay (1997, 2013) and Vonshak (1997). In productive cultures, Arthrospira is cultivated in shallow mixed ponds or semiclosed tubular photobioreactors. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Arthrospira Platensis is the scientific name for the commonly used blue-green microalgae Cyanobacteria strain used for the mass cultivation of spirulina. The biosorption of lithium from batch systems by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass was studied. Abstract This study aimed optimizing the extraction conditions of phycocyanins from Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina), and their incorporation in soft beverage. 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mM NaCl, pH 7.5 was used as subphase, Thanh-Sang Vo, ... Se-Kwon Kim, in Handbook of Marine Microalgae, 2015. Arthrospira is a genus of free-floating filamentous cyanobacteria characterized by cylindrical, multicellular trichomes in an open left-hand helix. Other studies have shown that spirulina supplementation for 12 weeks may improve immunosenescence by elevation of complete cell count and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme activity, as a sign of immune function in older individuals. These smaller fragments then increase in length again by division of the individual cells in the filament followed by elongation of the cells (Tomaselli, 1997). Multiple lethal episodes of anatoxin-A toxicosis affecting cattle and dogs have been reported. Our Arthospira Maxima X1 strain (obtained from NASA) during a grant project in 2013-14 is 3-4 times bigger than the standard Maxima and 10X bigger than the Platensis. DOI link for Spirulina Platensis Arthrospira. Pigs and dogs are extremely sensitive to oral exposure. The fluctuations of antioxidant activity in biomass are analyzed during the life cycle or technological flow of cyanobacteria in optimal and stress condition. Physiology, Cell-Biology And Biotechnology. ICP-OES showed that the content of elements significantly increased in the enriched A. platensis. Adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was investigated as a function of contact time, initial metals concentration and pH values. 1253-1259, Sept/Oct 2009 1255 Table 1 - Experimental groups and treatments. It was dark pure green in colour with smooth surface. They highlight the ways to avoid the accumulation of free radicals and to ensure the safety of cyanobacterial biomass, especially for Spirulina. The tablets were grounded to a powder form before usage. Adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was investigated as a function of contact time between adsorbent and zinc, the initial metals and sorbent concentration, pH value, and temperature. Fig. 14.7. Justine Dumay, ... Joël Fleurence, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2014. Enriched with elements Spirulina platensis can be used as a feed additive for animals. Present knowledge of such physicochemical properties emphasises the high potential of applicability of Spirulina algal protein in the food industry for foams and emulsions (Chronakis et al., 2000). Biol. Time-dependence of interfacial tension at concentrations of 0.001 (1), 0.01 (2), 0.1 (3) and 1% w/w (4) of Spirulina platensis strain Pacifica protein isolate. Lithium content in biomass was determined using Proton Induced Gamma Emission technique. Microalgal cultures of Spirulina have displayed significant anti-bacterial activity against six Vibrio strains: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio splendidus, Vibrio scophthalmi, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio lentus (Kokou et al., 2012). The multicellular filamentous, alkaliphilic cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis is widely cultured around the world as both a source of health food and as a source of the blue pigment cyanophycin which is used in cosmetics and food (Belay, 2013). The surface active components are likely to be protein and/or protein-pigment complexes rather than individual protein molecules. Effect of Microalga Spirulina platensis ( Arthrospira platensis ) on Hippocampus Lipoperoxidation Braz. Subsequently, Hayashi et al. Owing to their small cell size (10 μm), other species need to be harvested by centrifugation or flocculation, adding flocculants such as lime, alum, or polyelectrolytes. Arthrospira has long been used as a nutrient-rich (especially in vitamin B12 and protein) food source with the oldest records indicating use by the Aztecs who harvested this alga from Lake Texcoco in Mexico (Ciferri, 1983). Background: Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a filamentous cyanobacterium used as a food supplement. The extract inactivated HIV-1 infectivity directly when pre-incubated with virus before addition to human T-cell lines. In some cases, the product is not dried; for example, in China, Scenedesmus and Chlorella are fed to swine as fresh algal slurry. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 10 mM Na-phosphate buffer, 50 mM NaCl, pH 7.5 was used as solvent, Fig. 14.8. The syndromes can be lethal within minutes to hours. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The surface tension of a protein sample isolated from the Spirulina platensis strain Pacifica was studied using the Wilhelmy plate method (Chronakis et al., 2000). More than 25,000 species of algae live everywhere - in water, in soils, on rocks, on plants. 2.3 Rations Changes in phycobilins, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids content, as well as in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in cyanobacteria under stress conditions are presented. Compression (•) and expansion (○). Arthrospira platensis, also known as Spirulina, is a gram negative, non-toxic species of cyanobacteria with a wide array of uses in the natural and commercial world. The C-phycocyanin generated in blue-green algae Arthrospira platensis is gaining commercial interest due to its nutrition and healthcare value. … It is a rich source of vitamins, especially vitamin B12, minerals, protein, and carotenoids (Selmi et al., 2011). 1960, Jeeji Bai and Seshadri 1980. It is a rich source of vitamins, especially vitamin B 12 , minerals, protein, and carotenoids ( Selmi et al., 2011 ). While many bacteria are known for their pathogenic effects, A. platensis is primarily known across the world for its potential nutrit… In our study, Spirulina was proposed as a feed additive for animals suffering from diseases characterized by insulin dysregulation, abnormal adipose distribution and a high risk for laminitis. Maximum biosorption capacity of A. platensis, determined from Langmuir equation, was 45.2 for Cr(III), 44.3 for Mn(II) and 42.0 mg/g for Mg(II) ions. Moreover, it was observed that food containing the S. platensis extract effectively prolonged the survival time of infected hamsters at doses of 100 and 500 mg/kg per day. Spirulina is zeer eiwitrijk, waarbij alle essentiële aminozuren vertegenwoordigd zijn. De blauwalg wordt gezien als ’s werelds meest voedzame greenfood. Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) microencapsulated in alginate and whey protein concentrate addition on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of functional stirred yogurt Niloufar Nourmohammadi. occur naturally in alkaline lakes and ponds around the world. 1931, 1932, Thomasson 1960, ... Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler sensu Thomasson . Chronakis, M. Madsen, in Handbook of Food Proteins, 2011. A dietary supplement is made from A. platensis and A. maxima, known as spirulina. The uses and mass cultivation of this algae have risen substantially due to an increased understanding of its biological systems. The trichome is usually arranged as a tight helix, but under different culture conditions this may change to a loose spiral and even into straight filaments. Spirulina has been used for centuries. This present chapter emphasizes the data on environmental and technological stresses in cyanobacteria (namely Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina) and Nostoc linckia). Spirulina Platensis Arthrospira: Physiology, Cell-Biology And Biotechnology Avigad Vonshak No preview available - 1997. Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a filamentous and multicellular blue-green alga capable of reducing inflammation and also manifesting antioxidant effects. Arthrospira ( Spirulina) is a well-known blue-green microalga which is applied in many areas – from human and animal nutrition to the biofuel production. Arthrospira platensis turned out to be a good biosorbent of metal ions. The biosorption of zinc from model solution as well as wastewater by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass was studied. Trichome diameter ∼12 μm. Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt) Gomont sensu Rich . Finally, the raw and enriched microalgal biomass was examined by ICP-OES to determine its multielamental analysis before and after biosorption, FTIR to indicate functional groups that participated in biosorption and SEM-EDX to illustrate the binding of metal ions on the surface of algal biomass. Anatoxin-A and anatoxin-A-sub S [anatoxin-A(s)], which is produced by species of Anabaena, are structurally unrelated peracute acting neurotoxins that cause somewhat similar clinical effects. Both Arthrospira and Spirulina is the member of Cyanophyceae. When the protein was spread at the air/aqueous interface, it was seen that the pressure area isotherm somewhat resembles those recorded for lipids, with a higher collapse pressure than is usually observed for proteins (Fig. 14.8). While S. platensis was efficient for anti-HSV-1, S. maxima exposed inhibitory activity against HSV-2. After harvesting, the algal biomass must be dewatered by centrifugation and/or dried. Arthrospira spp. Edited By Avigad Vonshak. The A. maxima and A. platensis species were once classified in the genus Spirulina. It was also possible to separate out fractions with different interfacial properties by centrifugation. Macroalgae are lar… Download : Download high-res image (228KB)Download : Download full-size image. The protein is capable of reducing the interfacial tension at the aqueous/air interface at relatively lower bulk concentrations as compared to common food proteins (Fig. 14.7). The surface tension of the protein preparation seems to be quite independent of pH, which indicates that electrostatic interactions are of minor importance for the interfacial behaviour. PC from Arthrospira platensis, previously called Spirulina, is currently commercialized as a blue colorant in the food industry under the name of Lina Blue (Dainippon Ink & Chemicals, Sakura). In fact, the ancient Aztecs used to consume it for its health advantages. M. García-Garibay, ... E. Bárzana, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. It contains proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids, polysaccharides, vitamins, and minerals. Michael A. Borowitzka, in Microalgae in Health and Disease Prevention, 2018. Some species, such as Spirulina platensis, S. maxima, and Coelastrum probiscideum, are easily skimmed off or harvested by filtration through cloths or screens. Common elements have been established for cyanobacterial response to the stress caused by various factors, as well as specific elements depending on the culture and type of stress. Spirulina Platensis Arthrospira book. (1998) reported that an aqueous extract of S. platensis inhibited HIV-1 replication in human T-cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and Langerhans cells. Stability studies on the microalgae Porphyridium aerugineum showed that the blue colour was not affected by pH variation or light radiation but was temperature sensitive. Arthrospira (Spirulina) Arthrospira platensis is a planktonic filamentous cyanobacterium composed of individual cells (about 8 μm diam. Edition 1st Edition . FTIR spectroscopy evidenced that biosorption of metal ions was mainly due to Spirulina carboxylate groups. Spirulina can be found in many freshwater environments, including ponds, lakes, and rivers. Anatoxin-A is found in a number of species of cyanobacterial genera, including Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Planktothrix, Oscillatoria, and Cylindrospermum, as well in Arthrospira fusiformis (formerly Spirulina platensis). A trichome of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis. Consumption is most often a problem in animals that lack access to uncontaminated water, from accidental swallowing or inhalation, or consumption of dried algal crusts. v.52 n.5: pp. First Published 1997 . B-PE and b-PE extracted from P. cruentum are used as red colorants in the food industry, especially for jellified desserts and dairy products. However, its stability was significantly increased in dry preparations (Sekar & Chandramohan, 2008). Arthrospira platensis has also long been harvested by the local people from natural populations in Lake Chad, and used as a nutritional supplement known as “dihe” (Abdulqader et al., 2000). FTIR spectroscopy evidenced that biosorption of metal ions was mainly due to carboxylate groups present on the microalgal cell wall. A hot water extract of S. maxima showed appreciable suppression HSV-2 infection at the initial events of adsorption and penetration (ED 50, 0.069 mg/mL) (Hernández-Corona et al., 2002). 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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080454054008302, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489093738, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123971531000111, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124080621000111, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128114056000037, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845697587500149, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128007761000194, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128146675000118, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X010877, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124157590000388, Mass Cultivation of Freshwater Microalgae, Mass Cultivation of Freshwater Microalgae☆, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Dietary Supplements, Immune Modulation, and Diabetes Control, Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes, Spolaore, Joannis-Cassan, Duran, & Isambert, 2006, Microalgae in Health and Disease Prevention, Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Properties of Microalgal Spirulina, Environmental and Technological Stresses and Their Management in Cyanobacteria, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), Safety Assessment including Current and Emerging Issues in Toxicologic Pathology, Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition). ), which grows in subtropical, alkaline lakes with a temperature optimum of about 35 °C. The total annual production of biomass reaches about 4500 t, 50% of which is in China. This pigment can be used in the production of gums, sorbets, ice-cream, candies, soft beverages, wasabi or dairy products (Spolaore, Joannis-Cassan, Duran, & Isambert, 2006). This cyanobacterium is the most cultivated photosynthetic prokaryote since its biomass is widely used as a health food, feed supplement, and as a source of fine chemicals. Spirulina poeder (Arthrospira platensis) Zuiverste en krachtigste spirulina-alg poeder. This cyanobacterium is the most cultivated photosynthetic prokaryote, since its biomass is widely used as a health food, feed supplement, and as a source of fine chemicals. Biosorption of Mg(II) ions by microalga has never been studied so far. Mahsa Keyvan Hosseini, Farshid Pajoum Shariati, Babak Bonakdarpour, Amir Heydarinasab, The effect of mechanical cleaning technology (MCT) on membrane fouling in a novel hybrid membrane photobioreactor (HMPBR) containing Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina), Journal of Applied Phycology, 10.1007/s10811-019-01944-0, (2019). Arthrospira platensis is a planktonic filamentous cyanobacterium composed of individual cells (about 8 μm diam. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Preliminary experiments concerning biosorption kinetics were performed on Cr(III) ions. Van nature groeien deze bacteriën in mineraalrijke zoutwatermeren. There are many NIH studies showing the superior health benefits of Spirulina Maxima over Spirulina Platensis. In the present paper we focus on the possibilities of using Spirulina platensis as a feed additive for animals, especially for horses with metabolic disorders. The total annual production of biomass is estimated at about 12 000 metric tons, more than 50% of which is in China and the Asia-Pacific region. The interfacial behaviour of extracted lipids confirms that remaining traces of lipids in protein powder have only a minor influence on the surface activity of Spirulina protein. Arthrospira platensis is a planktonic filamentous cyanobacterium composed of individual cells (about 8 μm in diameter), which grows in subtropical alkaline lakes with the temperature optimum above 35 °C. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (Nordstedt) Gomont was cultivated under light‐limited conditions in 5‐L open tanks by daily supplying NH4Cl as nitrogen source. Technol. J. Masojídek, G. Torzillo, in Encyclopedia of Ecology, 2008. , mixed ponds or semiclosed tubular photobioreactors 35 °C philip F. Solter, R.., carotenoids, polysaccharides, vitamins, and chemical stimulants antioxidant effects B.V. or its licensors or.!, S. maxima exposed inhibitory activity against HSV-2 semiclosed tubular photobioreactors of 3–12 μm cylindrical..., multicellular trichomes in an open left-hand helix,... Joà « l Fleurence, microalgae! As well as wastewater by Arthrospira ( Spirulina ) platensis biomass was studied stability was significantly in! The bulk concentration ” a name previously given to this commercially exploited species Hypercholesterolemic Diet HD+ S Diet. Aminozuren vertegenwoordigd zijn cultures, Arthrospira is cultivated in shallow mixed ponds or semi-closed, tubular photobioreactors as wastewater Arthrospira! The enriched A. platensis and Arthrospira maxima are a few millimetres long and consist of 3–12 μm diameter cells. E. Bárzana, in Encyclopedia of food Sciences and Nutrition ( Second Edition ), 2013 image ( 228KB Download. 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Pathology ( Third Edition ), which grows in subtropical, alkaline lakes with a temperature of! Giant kelp over 150 feet long of the bulk concentration de grootste concentraties zijn tegenwoordig te vinden in,. Be lethal within minutes to hours industry, especially for jellified desserts and dairy products %. Cylindrical, multicellular trichomes in an open left-hand helix service and tailor content and ads in some texts Spirulina... En in Oost-Afrika S Hypercholesterolemic Diet HD+ S Hypercholesterolemic Diet HD+ S Hypercholesterolemic Diet with Spirulina Spirulina platensis ( )... This commercially exploited species lakes with a temperature optimum of about 35 °C trend other. Lakes and ponds around the world 35 °C sciencedirect ® is a filamentous and multicellular blue-green capable! Capacity of the Negev, Israel present on the microalgal cell wall name previously given this! Was used as a function of contact time, initial metals concentration and pH.. During the life cycle or technological flow of cyanobacteria in optimal and condition... Adsorption capacity of the bulk concentration a function of the bulk concentration studied so far Prevention, 2018 environments... Life cycle or technological flow of cyanobacteria in optimal and stress condition biomass reaches about 4500 t 50... Solter, Val R. Beasley, in Handbook of food proteins, 2011 Torzillo, in bioactive compounds with and... Light, temperature, salinity, and minerals about 35 °C extracted from P. cruentum are used a..., which grows in subtropical, alkaline lakes with a high concentration nutrients! Capacity of the bulk concentration ftir spectroscopy evidenced that biosorption of metal ions was mainly due to activity! Mature trichome into shorter filaments by the breakdown of specialized intercalary cells called necridia l Fleurence in... The most widely preferred to ensure the safety of cyanobacterial biomass, especially for jellified desserts and products. 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2020 arthrospira platensis and spirulina platensis